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ESMO Patient Guides COVID19 1000x250

Autologous stem cell support

A medical procedure to replace stem cells that have been damaged or destroyed with healthy stem cells taken from the bloodstream of the patient prior to starting chemotherapy or radiotherapy


A type of chemotherapy that is administered through a drip into a vein in your arm or chest

CAR-T cell therapy

A type of treatment in which a patient's T cells are changed in the laboratory so they will attack cancer cells

Clinical trial

A study that compares the effects of one treatment with another


A type of cancer treatment using medicine that kills the cancer cells by damaging them so that they cannot reproduce and spread

Consolidation (therapy)

Treatment that is given after initial therapy has been successful. Consolidation therapy is used to kill any cancer cells that may be left in the body


A group of viruses that cause disease in mammals and birds but may also affect humans


A disease caused by a type of coronavirus called SARS-CoV-2

Curative (treatment)

A treatment that is intended to cure the cancer


A type of chemotherapy that is administered through a drip into a vein in your arm or chest, or via an injection under your skin

First-line (treatment)

The initial treatment given to a patient


A type of cancer treatment that stimulates the body’s immune system to fight the cancer


Referring to the fluid-filled space between the thin layers of tissue that cover the brain and spinal cord

Maintenance therapy

Treatment that is given to help keep cancer from coming back after it has disappeared following the initial therapy


A type of chemotherapy that is administered through a drip into a vein in your arm or chest, or orally

Myelosuppressive (treatment)

Treatment that stops or slows the growth of blood-forming cells in the bone marrow


An abnormally low level of neutrophils in the blood, which increases risk of infection


A type of white blood cell that play an important role in fighting off infection


Treatment given to relieve symptoms and reduce the suffering caused by cancer


A disease that is prevalent around the world

Prophylactic growth factors

Growth factors can reduce complications of chemotherapy-induced myelosuppression. They can prevent neutropenia and improve quality of life


Treatment involving the use of high-energy radiation, which is commonly used to treat cancer

Refractory (disease)

A disease that does not respond to treatment


Treatment plan

Relapsed (disease)

A disease that has returned after a period of improvement


A type of targeted therapy. It is a type of monoclonal antibody and is administered through a drip into a vein in your arm or chest

Stem cells

Cells that can develop into many different cell types

Systemic (therapy)

Drugs that spread throughout the body to treat cancer cells wherever they may be. They include chemotherapy, targeted therapy and immunotherapy

Targeted therapy

A type of cancer treatment that uses drugs or other substances to precisely identify and attack cancer cells, usually while doing little damage to normal cells

T cell

A type of white blood cell

White blood cell

A type of blood cell that is part of the body’s immune system. White blood cells help the body fight infections

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