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ESMO Patient Guides COVID19 1000x250

Acute cerebellar syndrome

A disorder that occurs when the cerebellum becomes inflamed or damaged. The cerebellum is the area of the brain responsible for controlling gait and muscle coordination


A condition in which there is a shortage of haemoglobin


A protein produced by white blood cells in response to the presence of a specific antigen

Antiemetic (medication)

Drugs that help ease symptoms of nausea or vomiting


A foreign substance (e.g. viruses, bacteria, chemicals, pollen) that triggers the body’s immune system to produce antibodies in order to fight it off


A class of drugs that prevent the loss of bone density


A type of cancer treatment using medicine that kills the cancer cells by damaging them so that they cannot reproduce and spread

Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neurotoxicity (CIPN)

A set of symptoms, including tingling, numbness, weakness and pain in the hands and feet, caused by damage to peripheral nerves

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy

A type of treatment in which a patient's T-cells (a type of immune system cell) are changed in the laboratory so they will attack cancer cells

Computed tomography

A scan using x-rays and a computer to create detailed images of the inside of your body


A group of viruses that cause disease in mammals and birds but may also affect humans


A disease caused by a type of coronavirus called SARS-CoV-2


A type of chemotherapy that is administered through a drip into a vein in your arm or chest, or via an injection under your skin

Cytokine release syndrome (CRS)

An acute systemic inflammatory syndrome characterised by fever and multiple organ dysfunction that is often associated with CAR-T cell therapy


A monoclonal antibody used for the treatment of bone loss as a result of bone metastases

Erythropoietin-Stimulating Agent

Medications which stimulate the bone marrow to make red blood cells

Febrile neutropenia

A condition in which there is fever and an abnormally low level of white blood cells which increases the risk of infection and may require intensive treatment and a hospital stay

Gastrointestinal system

The system of organs responsible for getting food into and out of the body and for making use of food to keep the body healthy – includes the oesophagus, stomach and intestines

Growth factor

A type of drug used to increase the production of white blood cells in order to reduce the risk of infection


A protein responsible for transporting oxygen in the blood


An immune disorder characterised by a reduction in all types of gamma globulins, including antibodies that help fight infection. It may be related to medication, a kidney or gastrointestinal condition or caused by cancer

Immune system

The organs and processes of the body that help to prevent and fight off infections


A protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralise pathogens such as bacteria and viruses

Low molecular weight heparin

A class of anticoagulant medications used for preventing blood clots and for treating venous thromboembolisms (VTEs) and myocardial infarctions (MIs)


Cancerous tumours that have originated from a primary tumour/growth in another part of the body

Myocardial infarction

Heart attack


A disease that is prevalent around the world


A drug that is given to prevent disease


A type of drug used to relieve swelling and inflammation. Some steroid drugs also have antitumour effects

T cell

A type of white blood cell

Thromboembolic event

The formation of a blood clot inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system

Venous thromboembolism

The formation of a blood clot, most often in the deep veins of the leg, groin or arm, that travels in the circulation, lodging in the lungs

White blood cells

A type of blood cell that is part of the body’s immune system. White blood cells help the body fight infections


An imaging test, using a type of radiation that can pass through the body, which allows your doctor to see images of inside your body

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