The February issue of Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology features 2016 advances in oncology in multiple myeloma according to Prashant Kapoor and S. Vincent Rajkumar, small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) as seen by Charles M. Rudin & John T. Poirier, head and neck cancer elaborated by Alain P. Algazi and Jennifer R. Grandis, sarcoma by Jean-Yves Blay and Isabelle Ray-Coquard, neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) described by Massimo Falconi and Stefano Partelli, and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) according to Laurence Albiges and Toni K. Choueiri.
Advances in multiple myeloma in 2016
Data obtained in the past year underscored the benefit of a triplet regimen comprising bortezomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone for patients with newly-diagnosed multiple myeloma, and have provided high-level evidence supporting the safety of adding daratumumab to standard-of-care doublets for those with relapsed and/or refractory disease. As a result, achieving minimal residual disease-negativity at any stage of myeloma is now a realistic possibility.
Advances in SCLC in 2016
In 2016, the pace of biological insights into SCLC was reflected in new treatment approaches that have suggested meaningful clinical benefit to patients. The authors focus on three highlights: preclinical studies defining NFIB as a putative driver of metastasis, and two clinical studies; one that assessed the efficacy of an agent targeting the Notch ligand DLL3, and the other that explored T-cell checkpoint-blockade therapies targeting PD-1 and CTLA-4.
Advances in head and neck cancer in 2016
In the past year, clinical trials have provided important information on strategies to decrease treatment-associated toxicities in patients with head and neck cancer. In addition, the FDA approved the first immunotherapeutic agents for patients with recurrent and/or metastatic disease, based on the observation of durable responses to pembrolizumab in a phase Ib trial, and demonstration of improved survival and quality of life with the use of nivolumab versus chemotherapy in a phase III trial.
Advances in sarcoma in 2016
In 2016, novel findings on the role of predisposing gene variants in sarcoma oncogenesis were published, as well as studies addressing novel molecular classifications and results from randomised controlled trials highlighting successful new treatments.
Advances in NETs in 2016
In 2016, results of an extensive trial broadened the range of malignancies that can be treated with everolimus to include NETs of the lung and gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, studies aimed at identifying biomarkers with increased specificity, and at better defining high-grade NETs have enabled substantial progress towards delivering effective targeted treatments to patients with NETs.
Advances in RCC in 2016
In 2016, two major trials provided conflicting evidence regarding the role of 1 year of adjuvant therapy with sunitinib for patients with high-risk RCC. In the second-line metastatic setting, updated data from key trials showed that cabozantinib improved overall survival over everolimus, and nivolumab was associated with a better quality of life compared with everolimus. Finally, a phase II study in previously untreated patients showed cabozantinib to be superior to sunitinib.