Frédérique Penault-Llorca, MD, PhD, graduated as a medical specialist in pathology in 1993 and in oncology in 1995. Also in 1995, she received a PhD from the Université d’Aix-Marseille II in cellular biology and microbiology, on the topic of HER2. Professor Penault-Llorca is currently professor of pathology at the University of Clermont-Ferrand, CEO of the Comprehensive Regional Cancer Institute Centre Jean PERRIN, Clermont-Ferrand, France, deputy director of the research team INSERM 1240 IMoST, and head of the Molecular Biology Plateform at Centre Jean Perrin. She is president of the Immuno- Oncology group at UNICANCER R&D. She is a member of several pathology and oncology societies, including the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO), the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), the French Society of Pathology, Senologia, and the Study Group for Prognostic and Predictive Factors for Immunohistochemistry (GEFPICS), with her main areas of interest being female cancers. Professor Penault-Llorca has conducted various biomarkers-based research studies in breast, colorectal, gastric, and lung cancer in relation to response to targeted therapies and immunotherapies. She also acts as a coordinating pathologist for various oncology trials. Professor Penault-Llorca has written more than 400 peer-reviewed publications and several books on female cancers and pathologic testing methods and issues.