On 10 June 2020, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved nivolumab (OPDIVO, Bristol-Myers Squibb Co.) for patients with unresectable advanced, recurrent or metastatic oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma after prior fluoropyrimidine- and platinum-based chemotherapy.
Efficacy was investigated in ATTRACTION-3 (NCT02569242), a multicentre, randomised (1:1), active-controlled, open-label trial in 419 patients with unresectable advanced, recurrent, or metastatic oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Patients who were refractory or intolerant to at least one fluoropyrimidine- and platinum‑based regimen received nivolumab 240 mg by intravenous infusion over 30 minutes every 2 weeks (n=210), or investigator’s choice of taxane chemotherapy consisting of docetaxel (75 mg/m2 intravenously every 3 weeks) or paclitaxel (100 mg/m2 intravenously once a week for 6 weeks followed by 1 week off) (n=209).
The major efficacy outcome measure was overall survival (OS). Additional efficacy outcome measures were overall response rate (ORR), response duration, and progression-free survival (PFS) as assessed by the investigator using RECIST v1.1.
The trial demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in OS. Median OS for patients receiving nivolumab was 10.9 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 9.2, 13.3) compared with 8.4 months (95% CI 7.2, 9.9) for patients receiving investigator’s choice of taxane chemotherapy (hazard ratio [HR] 0.77; 95% CI 0.62, 0.96; p = 0.0189). The OS benefit was observed regardless of tumour PD-L1 expression level.
The ORR was 19.3% (95% CI 13.7, 26) in the nivolumab arm versus 21.5% (95% CI 15.4, 28.8) in the taxane chemotherapy arm, with median response duration of 6.9 months (95% CI 5.4, 11.1) and 3.9 months (95% CI 2.8, 4.2), respectively.
The trial did not demonstrate an improvement in PFS (HR 1.1; 95% CI 0.9, 1.3).
The most common adverse reactions in ≥10% patients receiving nivolumab were rash, decreased appetite, diarrhoea, constipation, musculoskeletal pain, upper respiratory tract infection, cough, pyrexia, pneumonia, anaemia, fatigue, pruritus, nausea, and hypothyroidism.
The recommended nivolumab dose for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma is 240 mg every 2 weeks or 480 mg every 4 weeks.
Full prescribing information for OPDIVO is available here.
This review used the Assessment Aid, a voluntary submission from the applicant to facilitate the FDA’s assessment.
Nivolumab was granted priority review and orphan drug designation.
Healthcare professionals should report all serious adverse events suspected to be associated with the use of any medicine and device to FDA’s MedWatch Reporting System.